Free Speech |Report

American high school journalists fight school-ordered censorship

  1. Learn about the First Amendment but don't live it
  2. Lesson 1: freedom of speech
  3. Lesson 2: suppression of freedom of speech

Talk (9)

Mark Wasson

Mark Wasson

"I'm an idiot. It's right at the end. ..."
Mark Wasson

Mark Wasson

"I'm not sure if I missed it or not, b..."
Mark Wasson

Mark Wasson

"It's anecdotes and opinions from sour..."
Lydia Morrish

Lydia Morrish

"Hey Joshua. Thank you for your commen..."

When 16-year-old Batoul Saleh tacked an article she’d written onto the wall of her school’s corridor on March 1, she was trying to emulate German professor and protestant Martin Luther, who is believed to have nailed a list of criticisms of the Catholic Church to a church door in 1517.

But Saleh, a student journalist at The Young Women’s Leadership School of Astoria, an all-girls school in Queens, New York, would be frustrated four days later when the school’s principal noticed the story on the wall, and removed it.

Students in high schools across the United States are having journalistic articles removed or suppressed by their schools, while school officials try to appease parents’ concerns and maintain order by limiting negative or inappropriate press.

Against a backdrop of declining local news, decreased media freedom (The Guardian), and an internet where “false news” travels faster than facts, free-press defenders worry the press is being hindered further through the censorship of student news.

Student journalists, often those who know the most about what goes on among their fellow students, are being censored frequently, and in more blatant ways, advocates and students told WikiTribune. They say increased censorship is leading to the suppression of vital information about school happenings, and in some cases, misconduct.

“I can wear a political message on a T-shirt and the school can’t stop me. But, ironically, if I take that same political message to the editorial page, the school probably can stop me,” says Frank LoMonte, director of Brechner Center, a Florida freedom of information think tank and for nine years executive director of the nonprofit Student Press Law Center (SPLC). “Everyone knows that makes no sense.”

Batoul Saleh's article about her school's student government group on the wall of her school in Queens, New York City. Photo by: Batoul Saleh
Batoul Saleh’s article about student government on the wall of her school in Queens, New York. Photo by: Batoul Saleh

17-year-old high school editor, Elizabeth Collins, was told by her Florida school that a page about the Parkland school shootings in February didn’t belong in the Sickles High School yearbook, Solleret. In the article, students aged 10-12 shared their thoughts on the shooting, with one recommending more safety measures in American high schools. But the principal, Mary Freitas, is hoping to remove the page before it’s published in April, says Collins.

Her team decided to create a page on school shootings because “so many have happened this year and it’s more than relevant,” she says. “Unfortunately, about a week before our deadline, she made us delete the entire page because she thought that political topics don’t belong in a school yearbook. She said she was just trying to avoid parent phone calls.”

“That shooting affected so many people and for our principal to make us delete the page without considering the voices she is silencing and the work put into the page makes me upset. It’s so wrong.”

Avoiding harm to school reputations

The First Amendment ensures an American’s right to freedom of expression. It applies in almost every corner of the nation, including inside school gates. But a historic ruling that set a precedent for schools to wield authority over student newspapers has led to widespread censoring of articles, says LoMonte.

The landmark Hazelwood School Disctrict v. Kuhlmeier Supreme Court decision – popularly known as “Hazelwood” – gave high school principals the right to review content before publication and suppress work deemed unlawful, poorly reported, containing errors, or disruptive to the school’s learning environment. Unlike an earlier Supreme Court decision that established the so-called Tinker test, the Hazelwood ruling decided that pupils surrender some of their Constitutional rights at the newsroom door, including those provided by the First Amendment.

But powers are being misused, and school officials across the United States are limiting content that will make the institution look bad, according to experts and high school students who spoke to WikiTribune.

The most common reason for censorship, and the most common reason the hotline at the Student Press Law Center rings, is a school’s reputation being put at risk, LoMonte says.

“I’ve heard the phrase countless thousands of times, ‘You are not allowed to make the school look bad.’ That is far and away the number one reason students are given when their journalism is withheld or rewritten,” says LoMonte. “It’s not about safety, it’s not about legality, it’s not about avoiding harm to other students. It’s about avoiding harm to the reputation of the school.”

The proposed spread in the Sickles High School yearbook, Solleret, that 17-year-old Elizabeth Collins says is being suppressed by her school principal. Photo courtesy Solleret/SPLC

Every day, the SPLC receives calls from students seeking legal advice about their press freedom – 800 a year, or more than two a day, says LoMonte. Given the nature of censorship, there are no definitive statistics that paint a complete picture of the magnitude of censorship in schools. However, LoMonte says it’s becoming more “blatant.”

“It used to be embarrassing to be caught censoring, but administrators have so thoroughly convinced themselves that newspaper belongs to them that they don’t bother concealing it or coming up with a cover story,” he says. “They go ahead and censor.”

“The law makes it easier than it used to be for school officials to silence a story that’s critical of the school,” says Mark Goodman, a journalism professor at Kent State’s School of Journalism and Mass Communication. He estimates that “well over half” of student journalists in American public high schools have experienced censorship of some kind. The Hazelwood ruling gave schools a sense that they had “free reign” to relentlessly censor student publications, he says, adding that censorship is an even bigger problem today than it was in 1988, when Hazelwood passed.

Most high school principals have the right to inspect a school newspaper or magazine before it’s published. “Prior review,” as it’s known, is general practice, says LoMonte. But it’s not good practice in students’ eyes.

“It doesn’t emulate real life at all,” says Saleh. “After school, if you proceed with a journalism career, government won’t tell you what not and what to post.”

Her article was read and praised by students and teachers at the school as they passed it hanging on the wall, Saleh says. It criticized the election process of the school’s student government, which sees students hand-selected by the principal receive special privileges, according to Saleh. But the principal removed the piece from the wall on the basis it could cause chaos in the hallway, she says. It was also removed from the newspaper’s website. Now, all content for the TWYLS Times is subject to prior review by the principal, says Saleh.

“[It contained] no foul language, it was very respectful,” Saleh says about the article. “I explicitly stated this is not a critique on the people and the members, but on the system and how it can be changed for elections and term limits and so people could have more say in their student government.

“[It felt] like my voice didn’t matter … what I said could easily be shut down.”

Batoul Saleh, 16, says her school’s newspaper, which is reviewed by her principal before publication, is losing purpose. Photo by: Batoul Saleh

Examples of censorship go on. A story about a teacher being fired for inappropriately texting a student at Herriman High School in Utah was censored by the school (SPLC). An issue of the student newspaper at Flushing High School in New York that contained an article criticizing a teacher’s performance was pulled (New York Post). An article about a new drug trend at a Warrenton, Virginia, high school was taken down by a principal who said it was too adult for the publication’s teen readership (Washington Post).

Censorship is less common but not unheard of in universities, LoMonte says. Unlike high school newspapers, which are mostly funded by the institution and created in journalism classes or after school, university papers are usually independently funded and free from interference.

“It’s financial control that leads to censorship. College media is impervious,” says LoMonte.

Students replacing local reporters

With more people consuming news digitally, and local newspapers declining (StatistaBrookings Institution), teenagers are increasingly replacing local reporters as watchdogs of their communities.

“Young people are increasingly the news lifeline for entire communities and not for students,” says LoMonte.

He’s concerned that if students aren’t unable to cover some stories in the public interest, the local community will be left in the dark.

“It’s not at all uncommon that the only journalist going to local school board meetings is 15 years old,” he says. “That’s increasingly common. That’s the other reason that we can’t take censorship lightly anymore.”

Frank LoMonte, who was director of the Student Press Law Center for 22 years, at an event on First Amendment Issues in Public Spaces Symposium. Photo by: Mark Schierbecker via Flickr
Frank LoMonte, who as director of the Student Press Law Center for 22 years defended student press freedom. Photo by: Mark Schierbecker via Flickr

‘New Voices’ fight for First Amendment

Retaliation against school control over publications is gaining momentum. The New Voices movement is leading an anti-censorship drive by pushing for laws that explicitly protect student-led media – in both high school and college – from school interference.

Fourteen states, including California, Oregon, Rhode Island, and most recently Washington have passed laws that give students stronger free expression protection than Hazelwood. However, six of them (Colorado, Kansas, Arkansas, Iowa, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts) protect only high school students.

“New Voices is trying to ‘cure’ the illness that is the Hazelwood ruling,” says Ryan Gunterman, executive director of the Indiana High School Press Association, which supports high school reporters. “Schools can be havens for First Amendment rights either by policy or practice, so the passage of New Voices legislation would make that happen for all schools within the state.”

Bills to protect student journalists are in some stage in six states, including New YorkIn February, a bill to preserve student press freedom in Indiana failed to pass.

But some students aren’t aware of policies that protect them, and censorship is still occurring in states with student press protections, says LoMonte, who receives more calls from California (which has protections) than any other state.

New Voices acts don’t cure censorship overnight,” he says. “There are people who either don’t know that the laws exist or are hoping that the students don’t know that the laws exist.”

Even young people who do understand their rights aren’t using them.

“They learn to self-censor, so they stop themselves from even coming up with these ideas because they think, ‘What’s the point of coming up with an idea if the principal or the teacher isn’t gonna let me do it,'” says Katina Paron, an advocate for First Amendment rights for students in New York.

In Paron’s survey of 62 high school journalists that asked students about censorship, 53 percent reported they’d had content censored before publication. Of those students, 60 percent said the reason they’d been censored was a negative portrayal of the school, while 73 percent said the reason given was controversial or “inappropriate” content.

“When I’m working with students not in a school-based environment, and we talk about the school paper, [a lot of them say] the paper sucks … and their papers suck because there’s administrative censorship that’s happening,” says Paron.

Student journalism losing purpose

We’ve had about a dozen things cut in my time here but the reasoning always varies,” says Grace Marion, editor in chief at Pennsylvania’s Neshaminy High School newspaper, Playwickian, and member of the newspaper’s staff for four years. The 18-year-old explains the newspaper is subject to a strict policy of review, so she keeps a document of some of the censorship on her online portfolio

“What can and cannot be published is fairly unpredictable,” Marion says. “I have printed a glowing review of ‘Naked Lunch’ and an interview with a musician talking about trading music for weed at 14, but I can’t print kids’ quotes talking about how they want to work harder in school in the New Year.”

Similarly, articles about sexually transmitted disease rates, the effects of self-harming, and an article by Marion about an alleged armed robbery of a student at her school were also cut.

“Sometimes they accuse us of writing lies regardless of how many people confirmed a story and other times they won’t even give a reason besides that they have the power to do it,” she says.

Grace Marion, the 18-year-old editor in chief of a Pennsylvania high school newspaper says her school’s review policy is one of strictest in the United States. Photo by: Grace Marion

Along with the feeling of powerlessness that comes with censorship, student journalists who have had articles binned are questioning their work.

“It makes you want to stop writing, to know that anything you write might just be tossed out,” says Marion.

In Queen’s, Batoul Saleh says censorship is stripping school journalism of its purpose.

“Right now, what’s being published, it’s nothing critical, it can’t be anything critical,” she says. “It’s all fluffy, soft news about pleasing the school and saying what they achieved or what they did recently … I don’t think people want to hear that. And it’s decreasing the purpose of [the] student newspaper.”

The young reporter compares her situation to Martin Luther’s in 1517: “To think that somebody in the [16th] century had more of a voice and power in their voice than I can, and that the principal could easily tell me what to post and what not to post … it’s counterintuitive to what journalism’s about.”

Martin Luther, attributed to the workshop of Cranach the Elder
Martin Luther, attributed to the workshop of Cranach the Elder

The National School Boards Association declined an interview request and an interview with the New York State School Boards Association is pending.


Sources & References

This story was suggested by WikiTribune community member Mark Wasson.


Started by

United Kingdom
Lydia is a staff journalist at WikiTribune, where she writes about politics, women's rights, inequality, sexual politics and more. Previously she headed up the women’s rights and political content at Konbini for over two years. In 2016, she made ‘Building Big’, a documentary about bigorexia and male body image. Her work has also been published in Dazed & Confused, Refinery29, Vice, Lyra, Banshee and Buffalo Zine. She is based in London.

History for stories "American high school journalists fight school-ordered censorship"

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24 March 2018

20:31:40, 24 Mar 2018 . .‎ Charles Anderson (Updated → summary tweak)

23 March 2018

14:51:21, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → correction: nine years)
13:43:50, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → correcting LoMonte capitalisation; updating with Washington passing new voices)
12:24:29, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding Mark Wasson to sources)
11:46:52, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Ferson James (Updated → saw a “teh” in headline)
09:31:05, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → removing hero, adding Martin Luther image to article body)
08:52:57, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Peter Bale (Updated → Readding byine to work)
08:39:44, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Peter Bale (Updated → Publish)
03:20:40, 23 Mar 2018 . .‎ Chuck Thompson (Updated → minor tweaks)

21 March 2018

17:29:02, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → picture caption)
17:27:27, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → fixing formatting)
17:23:09, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding quotes from Elizabeth)
15:55:20, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → fixing formatting)
15:55:18, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → fixing formatting)
14:49:14, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding in story of Florida censorship)
12:12:34, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → responding to editor's notes)
01:50:56, 21 Mar 2018 . .‎ Chuck Thompson (Updated → copyedit)

20 March 2018

16:27:20, 20 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → shortening sentence)
16:25:34, 20 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding link to Martin Luther)

19 March 2018

15:42:17, 19 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → shortening summary)
15:41:45, 19 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → writing through/condensing)
14:41:22, 19 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → writing through intro)

16 March 2018

15:40:22, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → rephrasing katina)
14:40:17, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding interview requests)
14:38:11, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → Adding Katina Paron quotes)
11:41:19, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding New York state bill)
11:20:34, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding Katina Paron quote and survey)
10:53:28, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding image of Batoul)
10:48:21, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → adding image of article)
10:46:36, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → )
10:25:46, 16 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → removed show of resistance)

15 March 2018

17:20:39, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → reshuffle)
17:07:48, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → tweaks)
17:06:48, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → tweaks)
17:06:18, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → small edits)
17:05:25, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → her school)
17:04:28, 15 Mar 2018 . .‎ Lydia Morrish (Updated → restructure)

Talk for Story "American high school journalists fight school-ordered censorship"

Talk about this Story

  1. Rewrite

    It’s anecdotes and opinions from sources, though. I’m not sure where the thought that news stories just relate “facts” comes from.

  2. Rewrite

    Hey Joshua. Thank you for your comment. I wouldn’t personally agree that it is an opinion piece. It is a feature article that centers around quotes from people with experience in this field – experts as well as students. The illustrations of examples of censorship are there for colour and to paint a picture of the story. For balance, I contacted administrators’ boards to get a response from them however this was unsuccessful. Perhaps we need a feature category as well as report.

    1. Rewrite

      I’m an idiot. It’s right at the end. Sorry about that.

    2. Rewrite

      I’m not sure if I missed it or not, but I didn’t see anywhere that school admins were contacted in the story. If there isn’t a mention of that, I think it needs to mentioned so people can see that schools had the option of responding.

  3. Rewrite

    Can WikiTribune say that it stands above acts of censorship, if (for example) a member here presents a question that the WikiTribune management finds uncomfortable?

    1. Rewrite

      Fire away, Georg, what do you want to ask?

      If it isn’t relevant to this particular story, you might find my user talk page a better place to ask?

      https://www.wikitribune.com/user/jimmy-wales/#talk

    2. Rewrite

      We will never censor awkward questions (check out Feedback on Everything! for some good examples) – we only remove abuse or someone’s personal details if they are posted publicly by accident.

  4. Other

    There should be a nationwide survey, school-by-school, district-by-district… to see if schools operate under prior review, have been censored and similar data points. This data could then be compiled into a report to more completely illustrate the current state of the First Amendment in our high schools.

    Many high school journalism programs operate at the whim of the administrator in charge. Also thanks to the revolving door for administrators each year, the survey should be conducted yearly.

    1. Rewrite

      Hi Robert, we actually made a survey but it didn’t get much reach. Katina Paron, featured in the story, is conducting a survey of this kind. It’s a good idea.

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