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Title Title
A history of 'National Emergencies' in the US A history of 'National Emergencies' in the US
Summary Summary
A history of national emergencies declared by US Presidents since the passing of the 1976 'National Emergencies Act.' A history of national emergencies declared by US Presidents since the passing of the 1976 'National Emergencies Act.'
Highlights Highlights
Content Content
As President Donald Trump <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/videos/politics/2019/01/10/trump-border-wall-mexico-national-emergency-kaitlan-collins-dnt-lead-vpx.cnn">reportedly considers</a> calling a '<a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95577/">National Emergency</a>' to <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/11/politics/republicans-divided-trump-national-emergency/index.html">facilitate the building</a> of his <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/12/donald-trump-government-shutdown-border-wall-democrats">proposed</a> border wall with Mexico, WikiTribune takes a look at the history of national emergencies under the 1976 'National Emergencies Act.'  <a href="callshttps://www.wikitribune.com/article/96468">As President Trump calls</a> a '<a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95577/">National Emergency</a>' to <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/11/politics/republicans-divided-trump-national-emergency/index.html">facilitate the building</a> of his <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/12/donald-trump-government-shutdown-border-wall-democrats">proposed</a> border wall with Mexico, WikiTribune takes a look at the history of national emergencies under the 1976 'National Emergencies Act.'
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>What is a National Emergency?</strong></span>  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>What is a National Emergency?</strong></span>
A national emergency can be called by the President in response to when<a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf"> 'the nation is threatened by crisis, exigency, or emergency.'</a> This allows the President access to powers he is not normally able to use, as a result<a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/emergency-powers"> of access to potentially 136 statutory powers. </a> A national emergency can be called by the President in response to when<a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf"> 'the nation is threatened by crisis, exigency, or emergency.'</a> This allows the President access to powers he is not normally able to use, as a result<a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/emergency-powers"> of access to potentially 136 statutory powers. </a>
The '<a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/HMAN-112/pdf/HMAN-112-pg1119.pdf">National Emergencies Act</a>' (NEA) was passed in 1976 and set a framework for when and how national emergencies could be declared. Prior to this, the President could be be allowed by Congressional acts to authority to <a href="https://www.lawfareblog.com/emergencies-without-end-primer-federal-states-emergency">behave beyond the normal limit of their powers,</a> such as those granted by <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-12/trump-organization-answers-on-foreign-payments-irk-key-democrat">Harry S. Truman during the national emergency declared due to the Korean War. </a> A Senate special committee formed in 1973 found that of the <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">470 provisions of emergency powers under federal law that had been granted, 4 were still in effect.</a> The '<a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/HMAN-112/pdf/HMAN-112-pg1119.pdf">National Emergencies Act</a>' (NEA) was passed in 1976 and set a framework for when and how national emergencies could be declared. Prior to this, the President could be be allowed by Congressional acts to authority to <a href="https://www.lawfareblog.com/emergencies-without-end-primer-federal-states-emergency">behave beyond the normal limit of their powers,</a> such as those granted by <a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-12/trump-organization-answers-on-foreign-payments-irk-key-democrat">Harry S. Truman during the national emergency declared due to the Korean War. </a> A Senate special committee formed in 1973 found that of the <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">470 provisions of emergency powers under federal law that had been granted, 4 were still in effect.</a>
The 1976 act established as a result of these findings means that the President cannot declare a state of emergency <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">without identifying which measures are being enacted, and identify the statutory base for each emergency power intended to be used.  </a> The 1976 act established as a result of these findings means that the President cannot declare a state of emergency <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">without identifying which measures are being enacted, and identify the statutory base for each emergency power intended to be used.  </a>
Initially, Emergency declarations were to<a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf"> expire automatically after 1-year</a> unless extended by the sitting President, but could be <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">terminated early by either Congress or the President.</a> Under the act, each house of Congress is also <a href="http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:50%20section:1622%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title50-section1622)&amp;f=treesort&amp;edition=prelim&amp;num=0&amp;jumpTo=true">required</a> to meet every 6 months to consider a vote to end each state of emergency, however this has<a href="https://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/289_jz567rmk.pdf"> never occurred.</a> The President must <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">extend each Emergency Act annually if it to remain in effect. </a> Initially, Emergency declarations were to<a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf"> expire automatically after 1-year</a> unless extended by the sitting President, but could be <a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf">terminated early by either Congress or the President.</a> Under the act, each house of Congress is also <a href="http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:50%20section:1622%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title50-section1622)&amp;f=treesort&amp;edition=prelim&amp;num=0&amp;jumpTo=true">required</a> to meet every 6 months to consider a vote to end each state of emergency, however this has<a href="https://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/289_jz567rmk.pdf"> never occurred.</a> The President must <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">extend each Emergency Act annually if it to remain in effect. </a>
Since the establishment of the NEA, <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">58 states of Emergency have been called, with 31 still ongoing</a>. This includes the first ever under the NEA, called by President Jimmy Carter during the Iran Hostage crisis in 1979. This blocked the Iranian government property from entering the US, and has been<a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html"> renewed by all presidents annually since then. </a>  Since the establishment of the NEA, <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">59 states of Emergency have been called, with 32 still ongoing</a>. This includes the first ever under the NEA, called by President Jimmy Carter during the Iran Hostage crisis in 1979. This blocked the Iranian government property from entering the US, and has been<a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html"> renewed by all presidents annually since then. </a>
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>Donald J.</strong> <strong>Trump</strong></span>  <strong>Donald J.</strong> <strong>Trump</strong>
President Trump has called 3 national emergencies under the National Emergency Act so far during his presidency.  President Trump has now called 4 national emergencies under the National Emergency Act so far during his presidency.
The <a href="https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm0243">first</a> was on 20th December 2017, when Mr. Trump <a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies">sanctioned 13 individuals for human rights abuses.</a> The <a href="https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm0243">first</a> was on 20th December 2017, when Mr. Trump <a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies">sanctioned 13 individuals for human rights abuses.</a>
A <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/09/14/2018-20203/imposing-certain-sanctions-in-the-event-of-foreign-interference-in-a-united-states-election">second</a> national emergency was called on 12th of September 2018,<a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies"> sanctioning those interfering with or attempting to influence the results of US elections</a>. A <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/09/14/2018-20203/imposing-certain-sanctions-in-the-event-of-foreign-interference-in-a-united-states-election">second</a> national emergency was called on 12th of September 2018,<a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies"> sanctioning those interfering with or attempting to influence the results of US elections</a>.
The President called his <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua">third</a> national emergency under the act on 27th November 2018. He used this to impose sanctions on the regime of Nicaraguan President <span style="font-weight: 400">Daniel Ortega due to <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua">"its use of indiscriminate violence and repressive tactics against civilians, as well as its corruption leading to the destabilization of Nicaragua's economy."</a></span>  The President called his <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua">third</a> national emergency under the act on 27th November 2018. He used this to impose sanctions on the regime of Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega due to <a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua">"its use of indiscriminate violence and repressive tactics against civilians, as well as its corruption leading to the destabilization of Nicaragua's economy."</a>
  The current President declared his <a href="callshttps://www.wikitribune.com/article/96468">4th emergency on February 15 2019 to achieve $US 8 billion in funding for the border wall.</a> The decleration is expected to face legal challenges.
The President also i<a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/10/health/trump-opioid-emergency-declaration-bn/index.html">ntended to declare</a> the <a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95083/">opioid</a> <a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/75266/">crisis</a> a national emergency, but it was deemed to be a <a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies">Public Health Emergency by the White house. </a>  The President also <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/10/health/trump-opioid-emergency-declaration-bn/index.html">Intended to declare</a> the <a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95083/">opioid</a> <a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/75266/">crisis</a> a national emergency, but it was deemed to be a <a href="https://psmag.com/news/the-united-states-states-of-emergencies">Public Health Emergency by the White house. </a>
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>Barack Obama  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Barack Obama
</strong></span>The 44th President of the United States declared <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">13 emergencies under the NEA, with 11</a> still in place. The first declared by President Obama was in <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-proc8443.pdf">response to the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") pandemic in 2009.</a> Obama's other emergency acts still in place include sanctions against individuals contributing to the crisis in <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">Libya, Somalia and Yemen. </a> </strong></span>The 44th President of the United States declared <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">13 emergencies under the NEA, with 11</a> still in place. The first declared by President Obama was in <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-proc8443.pdf">response to the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") pandemic in 2009.</a> Obama's other emergency acts still in place include sanctions against individuals contributing to the crisis in <a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf">Libya, Somalia and Yemen. </a>
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>George W. Bush  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>George W. Bush
</strong></span>The younger President Bush enacted 12 emergencies measures during his presidency. This included the <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/WCPD-2001-09-17/pdf/WCPD-2001-09-17-Pg1310.pdf">14th September, 2001 measures</a> in response to the attack on the World Trade Centre buildings. His final emergency measure was in response to the perceived <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2009-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title3-vol1-eo13466.pdf">threat to the US of the North Korean nuclear program.</a> <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">10</a> of the 43rd Presidents national emergency powers remain in place. </strong></span>The younger President Bush enacted 12 emergencies measures during his presidency. This included the <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/WCPD-2001-09-17/pdf/WCPD-2001-09-17-Pg1310.pdf">14th September, 2001 measures</a> in response to the attack on the World Trade Centre buildings. His final emergency measure was in response to the perceived <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2009-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2009-title3-vol1-eo13466.pdf">threat to the US of the North Korean nuclear program.</a> <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">10</a> of the 43rd Presidents national emergency powers remain in place.
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>Bill</strong> <strong>Clinton</strong>  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Bill</strong> <strong>Clinton</strong>
</span>President Clinton <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">enacted 17</a> national emergencies under the NEA. These included several imposing sanctions on <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1998-06-12/pdf/98-15888.pdf">several</a> <a href="https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12934.pdf">former</a> members of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, as well as against <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1995-01-25/pdf/X95-110125.pdf">terrorist organisations in the Middle East.</a> The powers related to 6 of these emergencies still remain in place. </span>President Clinton <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">enacted 17</a> national emergencies under the NEA. These included several imposing sanctions on <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1998-06-12/pdf/98-15888.pdf">several</a> <a href="https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12934.pdf">former</a> members of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, as well as against <a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1995-01-25/pdf/X95-110125.pdf">terrorist organisations in the Middle East.</a> The powers related to 6 of these emergencies still remain in place.
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>George H. W. Bush  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>George H. W. Bush
</strong></span>The 41st President of the US declared 4 national emergencies, of which none remain in place. George H.W. Bush declared emergencies regarding <a href="https://fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/text/execordr.htm">chemical and biological weapons proliferation</a> and in regards to<a href="https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/12722.pdf"> Saddam Hussein's Iraqi government.</a> </strong></span>The 41st President of the US declared 4 national emergencies, of which none remain in place. George H.W. Bush declared emergencies regarding <a href="https://fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/text/execordr.htm">chemical and biological weapons proliferation</a> and in regards to<a href="https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/12722.pdf"> Saddam Hussein's Iraqi government.</a>
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>Ronald Reagan  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Ronald Reagan
</strong></span>Ronald Reagan <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">declared 6 national emergencies,</a> none of which are still in place. These included national emergencies in response to events in <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12532.html">South Africa</a>, <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12513.html">Nicaragua</a>, <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12635.html">Panama</a> and <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12543.html">Libya</a> that were deemed a risk to the US. <span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>  </strong></span>Ronald Reagan <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/12/politics/national-emergencies-trump-opioid/index.html">declared 6 national emergencies,</a> none of which are still in place. These included national emergencies in response to events in <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12532.html">South Africa</a>, <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12513.html">Nicaragua</a>, <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12635.html">Panama</a> and <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12543.html">Libya</a> that were deemed a risk to the US. <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>
</strong></span> </strong></span>
<span style="text-decoration: underline"><strong>Jimmy Carter  <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Jimmy Carter
</strong></span>Jimmy Carter called 2 national emergencies during his Presidency- the first in 1979 resulting in the <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12170.html">sanctions on Iran that remain in place to this current day</a>, and the <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12211.html">second</a> in 1980 seeing further sanctions on Iran. </strong></span>Jimmy Carter called 2 national emergencies during his Presidency- the first in 1979 resulting in the <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12170.html">sanctions on Iran that remain in place to this current day</a>, and the <a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12211.html">second</a> in 1980 seeing further sanctions on Iran.
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Sources Sources
<p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/HMAN-112/pdf/HMAN-112-pg1119.pdf" rel="nofollow">National Emergencies Act [50 U.S.C. 1601, 1621, 1622] (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/HMAN-112/pdf/HMAN-112-pg1119.pdf" rel="nofollow">National Emergencies Act [50 U.S.C. 1601, 1621, 1622] (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.lawfareblog.com/emergencies-without-end-primer-federal-states-emergency" rel="nofollow">Emergencies Without End: A Primer on Federal States of Emergency — Lawfare Blog</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.lawfareblog.com/emergencies-without-end-primer-federal-states-emergency" rel="nofollow">Emergencies Without End: A Primer on Federal States of Emergency — Lawfare Blog</a></p>
<p><a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf" rel="nofollow">CRS Report for Congress- National Emergency Powers (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/98-505.pdf" rel="nofollow">CRS Report for Congress- National Emergency Powers (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:50%20section:1622%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title50-section1622)&amp;f=treesort&amp;edition=prelim&amp;num=0&amp;jumpTo=true" rel="nofollow">50 USC 1622: National emergencies</a></p> <p><a href="http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:50%20section:1622%20edition:prelim)%20OR%20(granuleid:USC-prelim-title50-section1622)&amp;f=treesort&amp;edition=prelim&amp;num=0&amp;jumpTo=true" rel="nofollow">50 USC 1622: National emergencies</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/289_jz567rmk.pdf" rel="nofollow">Essay: ‘The Emergency Constitution’ by Bruce Ackerman (PDF) — Yale Law Journal </a></p> <p><a href="https://www.yalelawjournal.org/pdf/289_jz567rmk.pdf" rel="nofollow">Essay: ‘The Emergency Constitution’ by Bruce Ackerman (PDF) — Yale Law Journal </a></p>
<p><a href="https://ia802500.us.archive.org/3/items/senate-report-93-549/senate-report-93-549.pdf" rel="nofollow">Report of the special committee on the termination of the national emergency — United States Senate, 1973 (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://ia802500.us.archive.org/3/items/senate-report-93-549/senate-report-93-549.pdf" rel="nofollow">Report of the special committee on the termination of the national emergency — United States Senate, 1973 (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/emergency-powers" rel="nofollow">Emergency Powers — The Brennan Centre for Justice</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/emergency-powers" rel="nofollow">Emergency Powers — The Brennan Centre for Justice</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf" rel="nofollow">List of National Emergencies under the 1976 National Emergencies Act — The Brennan Centre for Justice</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.brennancenter.org/sites/default/files/analysis/NEA%20Declarations.pdf" rel="nofollow">List of National Emergencies under the 1976 National Emergencies Act — The Brennan Centre for Justice</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/09/14/2018-20203/imposing-certain-sanctions-in-the-event-of-foreign-interference-in-a-united-states-election" rel="nofollow">Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election — The Federal Register</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/09/14/2018-20203/imposing-certain-sanctions-in-the-event-of-foreign-interference-in-a-united-states-election" rel="nofollow">Imposing Certain Sanctions in the Event of Foreign Interference in a United States Election — The Federal Register</a></p>
<p><a href="https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm0243" rel="nofollow">Press Release: United States Sanctions Human Rights Abusers and Corrupt Actors Across the Globe — United States Treasury Department</a></p> <p><a href="https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm0243" rel="nofollow">Press Release: United States Sanctions Human Rights Abusers and Corrupt Actors Across the Globe — United States Treasury Department</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua — The Federal Register</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/11/29/2018-26156/blocking-property-of-certain-persons-contributing-to-the-situation-in-nicaragua" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Nicaragua — The Federal Register</a></p>
<p><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/10/health/trump-opioid-emergency-declaration-bn/index.html" rel="nofollow">Trump: ‘The opioid crisis is an emergency’ — CNN</a></p> <p><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2017/08/10/health/trump-opioid-emergency-declaration-bn/index.html" rel="nofollow">Trump: ‘The opioid crisis is an emergency’ — CNN</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.bustle.com/p/did-obama-ever-declare-a-national-emergency-trump-isnt-above-using-one-to-fund-his-wall-15722252" rel="nofollow">Did Obama Ever Declare A National Emergency? Trump Isn’t Above Using One To Fund His Wall — Bustle</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.bustle.com/p/did-obama-ever-declare-a-national-emergency-trump-isnt-above-using-one-to-fund-his-wall-15722252" rel="nofollow">Did Obama Ever Declare A National Emergency? Trump Isn’t Above Using One To Fund His Wall — Bustle</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-proc8443.pdf" rel="nofollow">Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic — Government Publishing Office (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CFR-2010-title3-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title3-vol1-proc8443.pdf" rel="nofollow">Declaration of a National Emergency With Respect to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic — Government Publishing Office (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12934.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property and Additional Measures With Respect to the Bosnian Serb-Controlled Areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/files/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12934.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property and Additional Measures With Respect to the Bosnian Serb-Controlled Areas of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1998-06-12/pdf/98-15888.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1998-06-12/pdf/98-15888.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Property of the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Republic of Serbia, and the Republic of Montenegro, and Prohibiting New Investment in the Republic of Serbia in Response to the Situation in Kosovo — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1995-01-25/pdf/X95-110125.pdf" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1995-01-25/pdf/X95-110125.pdf" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting Transactions With Terrorists Who Threaten To Disrupt the Middle East Peace Process — Federal Register (PDF)</a></p>
<p><a href="https://fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/text/execordr.htm" rel="nofollow">Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation — Federation of American Scientists</a></p> <p><a href="https://fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/text/execordr.htm" rel="nofollow">Chemical and Biological Weapons Proliferation — Federation of American Scientists</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/12722.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Iraqi Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Iraq — U.S. Department of Treasury</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Documents/12722.pdf" rel="nofollow">Blocking Iraqi Government Property and Prohibiting Transactions With Iraq — U.S. Department of Treasury</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12532.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving South Africa — National Archives</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12532.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving South Africa — National Archives</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12543.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain transactions involving Libya — National Archives</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12543.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain transactions involving Libya — National Archives</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12635.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting certain transactions with respect to Panama — National Archives</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12635.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting certain transactions with respect to Panama — National Archives</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12513.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving Nicaragua — National Archives</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12513.html" rel="nofollow">Prohibiting trade and certain other transactions involving Nicaragua — National Archives</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12211.html" rel="nofollow">Further prohibitions on transactions with Iran — National Archives</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/codification/executive-order/12211.html" rel="nofollow">Further prohibitions on transactions with Iran — National Archives</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/01/12/trump-may-declare-national-emergency-border-wall-battle-heres-what-that-means/?utm_term=.fb09c811a30e" rel="nofollow">Trump may declare a national emergency in the border wall battle. Here’s what that means. — The Washington Post</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/01/12/trump-may-declare-national-emergency-border-wall-battle-heres-what-that-means/?utm_term=.fb09c811a30e" rel="nofollow">Trump may declare a national emergency in the border wall battle. Here’s what that means. — The Washington Post</a></p>
<p><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/videos/politics/2019/01/10/trump-border-wall-mexico-national-emergency-kaitlan-collins-dnt-lead-vpx.cnn" rel="nofollow">WH to prepare defense for national emergency — CNN</a></p> <p><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/videos/politics/2019/01/10/trump-border-wall-mexico-national-emergency-kaitlan-collins-dnt-lead-vpx.cnn" rel="nofollow">WH to prepare defense for national emergency — CNN</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/12/donald-trump-government-shutdown-border-wall-democrats" rel="nofollow">Trump claims plan to end longest government shutdown in history — The Guardian</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jan/12/donald-trump-government-shutdown-border-wall-democrats" rel="nofollow">Trump claims plan to end longest government shutdown in history — The Guardian</a></p>
<p><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95577/" rel="nofollow">Advance reading before Trump’s Border speech — WikiTribune</a></p> <p><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/95577/" rel="nofollow">Advance reading before Trump’s Border speech — WikiTribune</a></p>
  <p><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/96468">President Trump declares a national emergency to obtain funding for border wall with Mexico &#8212; WikiTribune</a></p>

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