Title Title
Violence in Yemen crippling efforts to improve water safety Violence in Yemen crippling efforts to improve water safety
Summary Summary
Contaminated water and attacks on water points 'as deadly as bullets and bombs' during conflict Contaminated water and attacks on water points 'as deadly as bullets and bombs' during conflict
Highlights Highlights
Content Content
<b>A lack of water and access to basic sanitation services in Yemen risks a new wave of cholera breaking out, with Unicef’s senior water advisor warning the worst is yet to come if the conflict there is not stopped.</b> <b>A lack of water and access to basic sanitation services in Yemen risks a new wave of cholera breaking out, with Unicef’s senior water advisor warning the worst is yet to come if the conflict there is not stopped.</b>
  <span style="font-weight: 400;">Sami Abubakr wishes to experience Yemen as he did as a child. "There was good jobs, hope, peace, all happy,” says the **-year-old who leads Water and Sanitation projects for Unicef Sana'a, Yemen’s capital.</span>
Health facilities across the port city of <span style="font-weight: 400;">Hodeidah </span>recorded a 170 percent increase in the number of suspected cholera cases, from 497 in June to 1,342 in August, according to UK-based non-profit Save the Children in a <a href="https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/news/media-centre/press-releases/yemen--surge-in-suspected-cholera-cases-in-hodeidah-">new report</a>. The coastal region, also a humanitarian access point,<span style="font-weight: 400;"> is currently</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> a contested frontline, with the latest wave of fighting there killing <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/sep/26/huge-spike-in-yemen-violence-as-civilian-deaths-rise-by-164-in-four-months-hodeidah">166 people a month</a>.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“[The] violence [has] increased the problem of safe water in terms of quality and quantity,” he told </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">WikiTribune </span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">while in England visiting family.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">So far in 2018, there have been 154,527 suspected cholera cases and 197 associated deaths reported across Yemen, according to a <a href="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02105241/Yemen-Emergency-Operations-Center-_Cholera-and-Diphtheria-Response_Situation-Report-No.48-weeks-35-36.pdf">new report</a> by the World Health Organization-run <a href="http://yemeneoc.org/">Yemen Emergency Operations Centre</a>. Nearly one-third (30 percent) of cases were in children under five years old.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">So far in 2018, there have been 154,527 suspected cholera cases and 197 associated deaths reported across Yemen, according to a <a href="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02105241/Yemen-Emergency-Operations-Center-_Cholera-and-Diphtheria-Response_Situation-Report-No.48-weeks-35-36.pdf">new report</a> by the World Health Organization-run <a href="http://yemeneoc.org/">Yemen Emergency Operations Centre</a>. Nearly one-third (30 percent) of cases were in children under five years old.</span>
The rising cases of cholera are directly linked to dwindling water resources.  
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Only </span><a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-23777176/yemen-facing-water-shortage-crisis"><span style="font-weight: 400;">half of Yemen’s population</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> has access to clean water. Water infrastructure has been repeatedly attacked by insurgents and services have been cut off. People including children are being forced to drink unsafe and polluted water. Many have to travel miles to access it.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">The rising cases of cholera, the infectious disease passed through contaminated water, are directly linked to dwindling water resources. Water infrastructure has been repeatedly attacked by insurgents and services have been cut off. People including children are being forced to drink unsafe and polluted water. Only <a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-23777176/yemen-facing-water-shortage-crisis">half of Yemen’s population</a> has access to clean water. Many of them have to travel miles to access it.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">A civil war in the Arab sovereign state has been ongoing since 2015 following a crisis that can be traced to the </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring"><span style="font-weight: 400;">2011 Arab Spring</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Civil unrest, political tensions and bombing tirades are grave threats to citizens. </span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">An offensive by the Saudi-led coalition to regain control of port city of Hodeidah from Houthi rebels </span><a href="https://www.acleddata.com/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">increased civilian deaths by 164 percent</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in four months. In turn, conditions for most have worsened. </span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">An offensive by the Saudi-led coalition to regain control of Hodeidah from Houthi rebels </span><a href="https://www.acleddata.com/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">increased civilian deaths by 164 percent</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in four months since it started started. In turn, conditions for many have worsened. (Read WikiTribune’s explainer on the Yemeni crisis </span><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/21963/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">here</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.)</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">A civil war in the Arab sovereign state has been ongoing since 2015 following a crisis that can be traced to the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring">2011 Arab Spring</a>. Civil unrest, political tensions and bombing tirades are grave threats to citizens. (Read WikiTribune’s explainer on the Yemeni crisis </span><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/article/21963/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">here</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.)</span>
  Health facilities across <span style="font-weight: 400;">Hodeidah </span>recorded a 170 percent increase in the number of suspected cholera cases, from 497 in June to 1,342 in August, according to UK-based non-profit Save the Children in a <a href="https://www.savethechildren.org.uk/news/media-centre/press-releases/yemen--surge-in-suspected-cholera-cases-in-hodeidah-">new report</a>. The coastal region, also a humanitarian access point,<span style="font-weight: 400;"> is currently</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> a contested frontline, with the latest wave of fighting there killing <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2018/sep/26/huge-spike-in-yemen-violence-as-civilian-deaths-rise-by-164-in-four-months-hodeidah">166 people a month</a>.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">But water is a more basic concern than bullets and bombs. And where there is access to it, it is often contaminated or polluted.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">But water is a more basic concern than bullets and bombs. And where there is access to it, it is often contaminated or polluted.</span>
<a href="https://www.unicef.org.nz/story/the-four-horsemen-come-to-yemen"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Four children</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> a day die in Yemen from cholera, the infectious disease passed through contaminated water, according to Unicef, the United Nations’ children’s charity. The charity says </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">water is </span><a href="https://www.unicef.org/stories/water-under-fire"><span style="font-weight: 400;">as deadly as bullets and bombs</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in times of conflict.</span>  
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“People think it’s war that affects children but it’s really their access to basic services that affects them,” said Timothy Grieve, Unicef’s Senior Advisor on Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH).</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“People think it’s war that affects children but it’s really their access to basic services that affects them,” said Timothy Grieve, Unicef’s Senior Advisor on Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH).</span>
<a href="https://twitter.com/UNICEF/status/1035150145438986240"><span style="font-weight: 400;">https://twitter.com/UNICEF/status/1035150145438986240</span></a> [caption id="attachment_90320" align="aligncenter" width="1536"]<img class="size-full wp-image-90320" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02103833/UN0216976.jpg" alt="On 11 May 2018 in Yemen, a boy in Alhatab village transports jerrycans to collect water near Hodeidah where water is scarce." width="1536" height="1024" /> On 11 May 2018 in Yemen, a boy in Alhatab village transports jerrycans to collect water near Hodeidah where water is scarce. Photo by: © UNICEF/UN0216976/Ayyashi. Used with permission from Unicef[/caption]
<h2>‘This is not right’</h2> <h2>‘This is not right’</h2>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“I want to go back to when I was a child. There was good jobs, hope, peace, all happy,” said Sami Abubakr, a citizen of Yemen who leads Water and Sanitation projects for Unicef </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sana'a</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Yemen’s capital.</span> "I am from all of Yemen," said <span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr, who was born in Hodeidah and now lives in Sana'a, the capital. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">His family migrated to the UK in 2015 when the conflict worsened.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“[The] violence [has] increased the problem of safe water in terms of quality and quantity,” he told </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">WikiTribune </span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">while in England visiting family. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr was born in Yemen and lives in </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Sana'a. His family migrated to the UK in 2015 when the conflict worsened.</span>  
  But he is happy to work on improving water access in Yemen. "We care about the children," he said.
<span style="font-weight: 400;">People in poverty and in Yemen’s rural areas are most affected by lack of access to water and often drink contaminated supplies, said </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr, who believes the number of those without access to water has increased to “more than half.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">He believes the number of those without access to water has increased to more than half of the population. People in poverty and in Yemen’s rural areas are most affected by lack of access to water and often drink contaminated supplies. Children are most vulnerable. </span>
  <a href="https://www.unicef.org.nz/story/the-four-horsemen-come-to-yemen"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Four children</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> a day die in Yemen from cholera, according to Unicef, the United Nations’ children’s charity.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Before the conflict, every person in Yemen was entitled to 60 litres of water, he explained. This included water for drinking, washing and cooking. S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">ince the worsening conflict has crippled supplies, everyone is limited to just 20 litres per day.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Before the conflict, every person in Yemen was entitled to 60 litres of water, he explained. This included water for drinking, washing and cooking. S</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">ince the worsening conflict has crippled supplies, everyone is limited to just 20 litres per day.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">In the United States, the average family uses more than </span><a href="https://www.epa.gov/watersense/how-we-use-water"><span style="font-weight: 400;">300 gallons</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (1300 litres) of water every day (United States Environmental Protection Agency). </span><a href="http://www.cambridge-water.co.uk/customers/how-much-water-do-you-use"><span style="font-weight: 400;">On average</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, every person in the UK uses 150 litres of water each day (Cambridge Water).</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">In the United States, the average family uses more than </span><a href="https://www.epa.gov/watersense/how-we-use-water"><span style="font-weight: 400;">300 gallons</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (1300 litres) of water every day (United States Environmental Protection Agency). </span><a href="http://www.cambridge-water.co.uk/customers/how-much-water-do-you-use"><span style="font-weight: 400;">On average</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, every person in the UK uses 150 litres of water each day (Cambridge Water).</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> described how women and children in rural areas have to walk three to five hours to fetch their daily allowance of 20 litr</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">es of water. “This is not right,” he said.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> described how women and children in rural areas have to walk three to five hours to fetch their daily allowance of 20 litr</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">es of water. “This is not right,” he said.</span>
[caption id="attachment_90319" align="aligncenter" width="1536"]<img class="size-full wp-image-90319" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02103829/UN0216979.jpg" alt="A photo of an injured girl being treated in a Yemen hospital" width="1536" height="1024" /> On 9 June 2018 in Yemen, an injured girl is being treated at Althawra Hospital in Hodeidah. She was injured along with her brothers and her uncle, while the family was trying to relocate farther from the fighting that same day in Aljah area, Bait Alfaqih district, Hodeidah. Photo by: © UNICEF/UN0216979/Ayyashi. Used with permission from Unicef[/caption]  
<span style="font-weight: 400;">These long and arduous journeys to contaminated water points are a direct result of the worsening conflict and targeting of water systems. </span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">These long and arduous journeys to contaminated water points are a direct result of the worsening conflict and targeting of water systems. </span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">International aid group Save The Children </span><a href="https://www.apnews.com/56f80edbd9cd44b1912debe02fe900cf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">estimates</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that at least 130 children die every day in Yemen from extreme hunger and disease. It said more than 50,000 children are believed to have died in 2017.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">International aid group Save The Children </span><a href="https://www.apnews.com/56f80edbd9cd44b1912debe02fe900cf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">estimates</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that at least 130 children die every day in Yemen from extreme hunger and disease. It said more than 50,000 children are believed to have died in 2017.</span>
A famine in Yemen that has been ongoing since the start of the civil war is only worsened by the devastation of infrastructure and facilities. A famine in Yemen that has been ongoing since the start of the civil war is only worsened by the devastation of infrastructure and facilities.
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr is confident that many more water-related deaths are to come.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Abubakr is confident that many more water-related deaths are to come.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“Children in yemen are suffering and suffering and will suffer in [the] future also if this war will not be stopped.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“Children in yemen are suffering and suffering and will suffer in [the] future also if this war will not be stopped.”</span>
  [caption id="attachment_90319" align="aligncenter" width="1536"]<img class="size-full wp-image-90319" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02103829/UN0216979.jpg" alt="A photo of an injured girl being treated in a Yemen hospital" width="1536" height="1024" /> On 9 June 2018 in Yemen, an injured girl is being treated at Althawra Hospital in Hodeidah. She was injured along with her brothers and her uncle, while the family was trying to relocate farther from the fighting that same day in Aljah area, Bait Alfaqih district, Hodeidah. Photo by: © UNICEF/UN0216979/Ayyashi. Used with permission from Unicef[/caption]
<h2>Fighting for the ‘last drop’</h2> <h2>Fighting for the ‘last drop’</h2>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Since Yemen’s acute water crisis began in 2015, when the country was already facing a severe shortage of drinking water, the situation continues to deteriorate, said Unicef’s Timothy Grieve.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">Since Yemen’s acute water crisis began in 2015, when the country was already facing a severe shortage of drinking water, the situation has continued to deteriorate, said Unicef’s Timothy Grieve.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">The majority of Yemenis are displaced and destitute, with many having fled. Half of those remaining do not have access to safe water.</span>  
  <span style="font-weight: 400;">Unicef says </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">water is </span><a href="https://www.unicef.org/stories/water-under-fire"><span style="font-weight: 400;">as deadly as bullets and bombs</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in times of conflict.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">The way water is manipulated makes it a weapon, he said.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400;">The way water is manipulated makes it a weapon, said Grieve.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“Decades of underdevelopment, compounded by the ongoing violence and repeated attacks on civilian infrastructure have left social services barely functioning and the entire country of the verge of collapse,” Grieve told WikiTribune.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“Decades of underdevelopment, compounded by the ongoing violence and repeated attacks on civilian infrastructure have left social services barely functioning and the entire country of the verge of collapse,” Grieve told WikiTribune.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Unicef has been working in Yemen to prevent further attacks on water and sanitation infrastructure to stop contamination and denial of humanitarian access. Attacks on Hodeidah have prevented some aid groups getting services and water to civilians.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Unicef has been working in Yemen to prevent further attacks on water and sanitation infrastructure to stop contamination and denial of humanitarian access. Attacks on Hodeidah have prevented some aid groups getting services and water to civilians.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“While we need to stop these attacks on water and sanitation there are broader issues,” Grieve said.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“While we need to stop these attacks on water and sanitation there are broader issues,” Grieve said.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">The deterioration of infrastructure, the lack of wages for government staff and the breaking down of water and sanitation systems are all issues that need to be tackled simultaneously to beat the crisis.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">The deterioration of infrastructure, the lack of wages for government staff and the breaking down of water and sanitation systems are all issues that need to be tackled simultaneously to beat the crisis.</span>
[caption id="attachment_90320" align="aligncenter" width="1536"]<img class="size-full wp-image-90320" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/02103833/UN0216976.jpg" alt="On 11 May 2018 in Yemen, a boy in Alhatab village transports jerrycans to collect water near Hodeidah where water is scarce." width="1536" height="1024" /> On 11 May 2018 in Yemen, a boy in Alhatab village transports jerrycans to collect water near Hodeidah where water is scarce. Photo by: © UNICEF/UN0216976/Ayyashi. Used with permission from Unicef[/caption] https://twitter.com/UNICEF/status/1035150145438986240
<span style="font-weight: 400;">On top of of lack access to water and sanitation, populations were vulnerable in multiple ways, including in terms of nutritional status, education and health status, Grieve added.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">On top of of lack access to water and sanitation, populations were vulnerable in multiple ways, including in terms of nutritional status, education and health status, Grieve added.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“Attacks on water infrastructure jeopardize efforts to prevent further [cholera] outbreaks,” said Grieve.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“Attacks on water infrastructure jeopardize efforts to prevent further [cholera] outbreaks,” said Grieve.</span>
While the conflict in Yemen is making the water situation in Yemen worse, the country has been in a minor water crisis for decades, said <a href="https://climateandsecurity.org/collin-douglas/">Collin Douglas</a>, a research fellow at The Center for Climate and Security, a U.S. non-profit focusing on climate affairs. While the conflict in Yemen is making the water situation in Yemen worse, the country has been in a minor water crisis for decades, said <a href="https://climateandsecurity.org/collin-douglas/">Collin Douglas</a>, a research fellow at The Center for Climate and Security, a U.S. non-profit focusing on climate affairs.
"The crisis was elevated with the political dysfunction and violence we've seen over the past eight to ten years," said Douglas. "The crisis was elevated with the political dysfunction and violence we've seen over the past eight to ten years," said Douglas.
Before the conflict, Yemen's water instability was a result of the government's inability to adapt to population growth and govern water resources, he said, adding that long-term solutions do not seem likely in the near future. Before the conflict, Yemen's water instability was a result of the government's inability to adapt to population growth and govern water resources, he said, adding that long-term solutions do not seem likely in the near future.
"With the scale of the humanitarian crisis right now along with the fact that the fighting doesn't seem to be slowing, it's impossible to know when Yemen will see water stability again." "With the scale of the humanitarian crisis right now along with the fact that the fighting doesn't seem to be slowing, it's impossible to know when Yemen will see water stability again."
"Yemen is a country that has extreme poverty, very little development, few prospects, and no voice on the international stage. Countries and people in similar situations will be the ones paying the highest price for water conflicts." "Yemen is a country that has extreme poverty, very little development, few prospects, and no voice on the international stage. Countries and people in similar situations will be the ones paying the highest price for water conflicts."
<h2>Race against time</h2> <h2>Race against time</h2>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Time is "running out” to stop the crisis and prevent the situation worsening, said Maude Barlow, a water activist and co-founder of the <a href="http://www.blueplanetproject.net/index.php">Blue Planet Project</a>, a global "water justice" movement.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Time is "running out” to stop the crisis and prevent the situation worsening, said Maude Barlow, a water activist and co-founder of the <a href="http://www.blueplanetproject.net/index.php">Blue Planet Project</a>, a global "water justice" movement.</span>
It has been predicted that only <a href="https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/half-world-face-severe-water-stress-2030-unless-water-use-decoupled">40 percent of the global population in 2030</a> will have access to water. Yemen will be one of the first countries to run out. It has been predicted that only <a href="https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/half-world-face-severe-water-stress-2030-unless-water-use-decoupled">40 percent of the global population in 2030</a> will have access to water. Yemen will be one of the first countries to run out.
<span style="font-weight: 400;">"We can fight until the last drop of water or we can just stop,” Barlow told <em>WikiTribune.</em></span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">"We can fight until the last drop of water or we can just stop,” Barlow told <em>WikiTribune.</em></span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Depriving people of access to water or using water as a method of war is a violation of international humanitarian law.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Depriving people of access to water or using water as a method of war is a violation of international humanitarian law.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400;">Barlow</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> was a leading figure in the successful campaign to have water </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-10797988"><span style="font-weight: 400;">recognized as a human right by the United Nations in 2010</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Barlow</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> was a leading figure in the successful campaign to have water </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-10797988"><span style="font-weight: 400;">recognized as a human right by the United Nations in 2010</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span>
The situation in Yemen, along with in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, where water shortages and deprivation are widespread, are breaches of the law. The situation in Yemen, along with in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, where water shortages and deprivation are widespread, are breaches of the law.
<span style="font-weight: 400;">“There are some things in the world that should be available to all,” Barlow told </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">WikiTribune</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> from Canada during a phone call. “Everyone has the right to water for life.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">“There are some things in the world that should be available to all,” Barlow told </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">WikiTribune</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> from Canada during a phone call. “Everyone has the right to water for life.”</span>
[caption id="attachment_89414" align="aligncenter" width="5616"]<img class="size-full wp-image-89414" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/24102439/2018-04-27T000000Z_37281459_RC1A421C8E30_RTRMADP_3_YEMEN-SECURITY.jpg" alt="" width="5616" height="3744" /> Women fill jerry cans with polluted water near Sanaa, Yemen April 27, 2018. REUTERS/Mohamed al-Sayaghi[/caption] [caption id="attachment_89414" align="aligncenter" width="5616"]<img class="size-full wp-image-89414" src="https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wikitribune-uploads-master/2018/09/24102439/2018-04-27T000000Z_37281459_RC1A421C8E30_RTRMADP_3_YEMEN-SECURITY.jpg" alt="" width="5616" height="3744" /> Women fill jerry cans with polluted water near Sanaa, Yemen April 27, 2018. REUTERS/Mohamed al-Sayaghi[/caption]
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