• Revision ID 2921 REVISION
  • 2017-08-21 15:03:34
  • by Angela Long (talk | contribs)
  • Note: Moved explanation of autonomous weapons up high
  • Revision ID 2922 REVISION
  • 2017-08-21 15:12:51
  • by Angela Long (talk | contribs)
  • Note: General tightening-up
 
   
Title Title
Explainer: The automation of war Explainer: The automation of war
Summary Summary
Story under construction, contributions welcome:  Story under construction, contributions welcome:
Inside the intensifying debate over the ethics of fully automated weapons Inside the intensifying debate over the ethics of fully automated weapons
Highlights Highlights
Content Content
<span style="font-weight: 400">More than 100 high-profile business leaders have signed a letter urging the United Nations to prevent escalation of the supposed threats posed by autonomous weapons. The letter warns that such weapon development could become an arms race and usher in “the third revolution in warfare”.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">More than 100 high-profile business leaders have signed a letter urging the United Nations to prevent escalation of the supposed threats posed by autonomous weapons. The letter warns that such weapon development could become an arms race and usher in “the third revolution in warfare”.</span>
Autonomous weapons, or “killer robots”, are designed to identify enemy targets and engage them <a href="https://www.law.upenn.edu/institutes/cerl/conferences/ethicsofweapons/">without human involvement</a>. They are intended to be more efficient than conventional warfare, which requires  humans to identify targets and assess risks before pulling a trigger. Autonomous weapons, or “killer robots”, are designed to identify enemy targets and engage them <a href="https://www.law.upenn.edu/institutes/cerl/conferences/ethicsofweapons/">without human involvement</a>. They are intended to be more efficient than conventional warfare, which requires  humans to identify targets and assess risks before pulling a trigger.
<b>Breakdown</b> <b>Breakdown</b>
<span style="font-weight: 400">The </span><a href="https://futureoflife.org/autonomous-weapons-open-letter-2017"><span style="font-weight: 400">letter</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">, signed by 116 leaders in artificial intelligence technology, was addressed to the UN’s Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The </span><a href="https://futureoflife.org/autonomous-weapons-open-letter-2017"><span style="font-weight: 400">letter</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">, signed by 116 leaders in artificial intelligence technology, was addressed to the UN’s Conference of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">With signatures including Tesla’s Elon Musk and Google Deepmind’s Mustafa Suleyman, the letter does not explicitly call for the UN to ban these weapons.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">With signatures including Tesla’s Elon Musk and Google Deepmind’s Mustafa Suleyman, the letter does not explicitly call for the UN to ban these weapons.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">However the business leaders said that they felt “especially responsible in raising this alarm” as the technology from their companies is likely to contribute to the development of autonomous weapons.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">However the business leaders said that they felt “especially responsible in raising this alarm” as the technology from their companies is likely to contribute to the development of autonomous weapons.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">A new Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) was </span><a href="https://www.stopkillerrobots.org/2017/05/diplomatsfalter/"><span style="font-weight: 400">due to meet on 21 August</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> to begin discussing potential international regulation of autonomous weapons, but the meeting was delayed because some member states had not paid UN contributions.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">A new Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) was </span><a href="https://www.stopkillerrobots.org/2017/05/diplomatsfalter/"><span style="font-weight: 400">due to meet on 21 August</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> to begin discussing potential international regulation of autonomous weapons, but the meeting was delayed because some member states had not paid UN contributions.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">Toby Walsh, professor of artificial intelligence at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, coordinated the letter and published it at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Melbourne on 21 August. </span> <span style="font-weight: 400">Toby Walsh, professor of artificial intelligence at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, coordinated the letter and published it at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Melbourne on 21 August. </span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">The letter encourages the Group of Governmental Experts to “prevent an arms race in these weapons, to protect civilians from their misuse, and to avoid the destabilizing effects of these technologies.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The letter encourages the Group of Governmental Experts to “prevent an arms race in these weapons, to protect civilians from their misuse, and to avoid the destabilizing effects of these technologies.”</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">The business leaders warned that autonomous weapons could lead to armed conflict fought “at a greater scale than ever and at timescales faster than humans can comprehend.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The business leaders warned that autonomous weapons could lead to armed conflict fought “at a greater scale than ever and at timescales faster than humans can comprehend.”</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">The letter further warned that such weapons could be misused by despots and terrorists and hacked by opponents, at great risk to civilians.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The letter further warned that such weapons could be misused by despots and terrorists and hacked by opponents, at great risk to civilians.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">“We do not have long to act,” they wrote, “Once this Pandora’s box is opened, it will be hard to close.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">“We do not have long to act,” they wrote, “Once this Pandora’s box is opened, it will be hard to close.”</span>
<b>The tech</b> <b>The tech</b>
&nbsp;  
<span style="font-weight: 400">The development of artificial intelligence (AI) in arms builds on the use of unmanned aircraft (drones), which have the advantage of keeping the targeting combatants far from danger.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The development of artificial intelligence (AI) in arms builds on the use of unmanned aircraft (drones), which have the advantage of keeping the targeting combatants far from danger.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">In practical terms, the initial difference would be that the drone identifies the target itself, makes a calculation on the risk of collateral damage before deciding whether to launch a strike, without any human intervention. Such technology, </span><a href="https://www.law.upenn.edu/live/files/4003-20141120---wagner-markus-dehumanizationpdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">could be advanced to become the overarching means of controlling weapons in war more broadly</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400">In practical terms, the initial difference would be that the drone identifies the target itself, and makes a calculation on the risk of collateral damage before deciding whether to launch a strike, without any human intervention. Such technology, </span><a href="https://www.law.upenn.edu/live/files/4003-20141120---wagner-markus-dehumanizationpdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">could be advanced to become the overarching means of controlling weapons in war more broadly</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">.</span>
<a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/01/05/growing-international-movement-against-killer-robots"><span style="font-weight: 400">According to</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> Human Rights Watch, South Korea has deployed automated gun towers in the demilitarised zone with North Korea.</span> <a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/01/05/growing-international-movement-against-killer-robots"><span style="font-weight: 400">According to</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> Human Rights Watch, South Korea has deployed automated gun towers in the demilitarised zone with North Korea.</span>
<b>The risk</b> <b>The risk</b>
<span style="font-weight: 400">Campaigners against the development of autonomous weapons </span><a href="https://www.hrw.org/topic/arms/killer-robots"><span style="font-weight: 400">argue</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> that it is unlikely that AI can replace human judgment and reliably assess the risk of causing a breach of humanitarian law.</span>  <span style="font-weight: 400">Campaigners against the development of autonomous weapons </span><a href="https://www.hrw.org/topic/arms/killer-robots"><span style="font-weight: 400">argue</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> that it is unlikely that AI could replace human judgment and reliably assess the risk of causing a breach of humanitarian law.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">Humanitarian law (the international standards that are supposed to govern combat) rests on the “</span><a href="https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/Cust-Intl-Hum-Law_Vol-I.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">cardinal principles”</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> of proportionality and distinction.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">Humanitarian law (the international standards that are supposed to govern combat) rests on the “</span><a href="https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/Cust-Intl-Hum-Law_Vol-I.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">cardinal principles”</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> of proportionality and distinction.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">These principles, relying on an assumption that any war can only be legally justified as defensive, mean that any combative action must be proportionate to the defensive aim of the war, and any attack must distinguish between civilians and combatants.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">These principles, relying on an assumption that any war can only be legally justified as defensive, mean that any combative action must be proportionate to the defensive aim of the war, and any attack must distinguish between civilians and combatants.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">An additional addendum to the canon of humanitarian law, known as the <em><a href="https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/article/other/57jnhy.htm">Martens Clause</a></em>, established in 1899, requires actors to be mindful of the "public conscience".</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">An additional addendum to the canon of humanitarian law, known as the <em><a href="https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/article/other/57jnhy.htm">Martens Clause</a></em>, established in 1899, requires actors to be mindful of the "public conscience".</span>
In a 2016 report, Human Rights Watch said that "Although progress is likely in the development of sensory and processing capabilities, distinguishing an active combatant from a civilian or an injured or surrendering soldier requires more than such capabilities." In a 2016 report, Human Rights Watch said that "Although progress is likely in the development of sensory and processing capabilities, distinguishing an active combatant from a civilian or an injured or surrendering soldier requires more than such capabilities."
In a 2013 <a href="http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session23/A-HRC-23-47_en.pdf">report </a>for the UN's Human Rights Council, Christof Heyns, the special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions wrote that "Proportionality is widely understood to involve distinctively human judgement." In a 2013 <a href="http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session23/A-HRC-23-47_en.pdf">report </a>for the UN's Human Rights Council, Christof Heyns, the special rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions wrote that "Proportionality is widely understood to involve distinctively human judgement."
"The prevailing legal interpretations of the rule explicitly rely on notions such as “common sense”, “good faith” and the “reasonable military commander standard,” Heyns went on, "It remains to be seen to what extent these concepts can be translated into computer programmes, now or in the future." "The prevailing legal interpretations of the rule explicitly rely on notions such as “common sense”, “good faith” and the “reasonable military commander standard,” Heyns went on, "It remains to be seen to what extent these concepts can be translated into computer programmes, now or in the future."
<span style="font-weight: 400">The Stop Killer Robots campaign group </span><a href="http://www.stopkillerrobots.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/KRC_PR_CCW_30May2017fnl.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">warned</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> earlier this year that “low-cost sensors and advances in artificial intelligence are making it increasingly practical to design weapons systems that would target and attack without any meaningful human control.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">The Stop Killer Robots campaign group </span><a href="http://www.stopkillerrobots.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/KRC_PR_CCW_30May2017fnl.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">warned</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> earlier this year that “low-cost sensors and advances in artificial intelligence are making it increasingly practical to design weapons systems that would target and attack without any meaningful human control.”</span>
<a href="http://www.stopkillerrobots.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/KRC_CountryViews_May2017.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">According to the campaign group</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">, 19 countries have endorsed calls for a preemptive ban on fully autonomous weapons systems.</span> <a href="http://www.stopkillerrobots.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/KRC_CountryViews_May2017.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">According to the campaign group</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">, 19 countries have endorsed calls for a preemptive ban on fully autonomous weapons systems.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">In 2015, Walsh organised </span><a href="https://futureoflife.org/open-letter-autonomous-weapons"><span style="font-weight: 400">another letter</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> signed by over 1000 tech experts and scientists, which also warned against starting an AI military arms race.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">In 2015, Walsh organised </span><a href="https://futureoflife.org/open-letter-autonomous-weapons"><span style="font-weight: 400">another letter</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400"> signed by over 1000 tech experts and scientists, which also warned against starting an AI military arms race.</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Read more</strong></span> <span style="font-weight: 400"><strong>Read more</strong></span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">“</span><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/stories/how-will-humanity-go-extinct/"><span style="font-weight: 400">How will humanity go extinct?</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400">“</span><a href="https://www.wikitribune.com/stories/how-will-humanity-go-extinct/"><span style="font-weight: 400">How will humanity go extinct?</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400">”</span>
<span style="font-weight: 400">United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) “</span><a href="http://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/framing-discussions-on-the-weaponization-of-increasingly-autonomous-technologies-en-606.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">Framing discussions on the weaponization of increasingly autonomous technology”</span></a> <span style="font-weight: 400">United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) “</span><a href="http://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/framing-discussions-on-the-weaponization-of-increasingly-autonomous-technologies-en-606.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400">Framing discussions on the weaponization of increasingly autonomous technology”</span></a>
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